A British parliamentary inquiry launched on Wednesday is considering how the government might compensate for the harm its tourists inflict on the natural world.

Tourism is the UK’s fastest-growing industry, with record numbers of Britons taking holidays in 2018; meanwhile, tourism causes 8 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

The House of Commons environmental audit committee will examine damage to coastlines, oceans and seas; overcrowding (which drains local resources, especially where water is scarce); infrastructural strain; and the carbon output from aeroplanes and cars.

Proposed solutions include taxing aviation fuel—currently tax-exempt—raising flight costs, subsidising trains over aeroplanes, and enforcing greater transparency on holiday-providers.

Anti-tourism movements have sprung up in several countries, responding to what many locals feel is the combined effect of insufficient government regulation and tourists’ careless attitudes.

Another argument in favour of limiting tourism’s environmental impact is self-preserving: long-term, the climate crisis threatens some of the world’s top destinations.

However, others note that environmental concerns may mask deeper-rooted xenophobia—and argue that, as providers, holiday and travel companies should shoulder much of the offsetting burden, followed by private individuals.

Should tourists be held financially accountable for the environmental harm their holidays cause?